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Full text of "Monograph of the genus Cryptocerus, belonging to the group Cryptoceridae - family Myrmicidae - division Hymenoptera Heterogyna."

THE 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



LONDON. 



NEW SERIES. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. EOWORTH AND SONS, 
BELL YARD, FLEET STREET. 

SOLD BY LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN AND LONGMANS, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 

18521853. 



T 



( 213 ) 

XXIII. Monograph of the Genus Cryptocerus, lelongwg to 
the Group Oyptoceridse Family Myrmicids Division 
Hymenoptera Heterogyna. By F. SMITH, Esq. 

[Read 7th March, 1853.] 

THERE is no genus with which we are acquainted amongst the 
Formieida which exhibits such eccentricities of form as are met 
with in Cryptocerus; indeed, independent of variation in general 
habit, the differences of the form of parts is so great in some 
species, that at first sight they would appear to belong to dwtmct 
genera: a careful study of a number of individuals soon shows us 
that these apparently broad distinctions are but mod.ficatmns ot 
one normal type of structure. Taking the type of the genus 
C. atratus, and attentively studying it, we find in the different 
individuals which follow, some differing in the addition to or dimi- 
nution of the number of spines which usually arm the head and 
thorax; others having the shield of the head, or lateral produced 
margins, terminating more or less suddenly before reaching the 
posterior angles of the head ; in one instance only do we find the 
margin continued entirely round, forming the exact model of a 
dish. This expansion appears to be at the expense of a diminution 
of other appendages, the thorax as well as the nodes of the abdo- 
men are destitute of spines, and all other parts are of the simplest 

construction. . 

I have thought it desirable to give figures of the sexes of all 
the species of which I could obtain specimens for that purpose. 
An additional interest will arise from the discovery of the males of 
two species; for this valuable information we ar e Jebted to the 
industry and the acuteneu of observation of Mr. H. W Bates, to 
whom Entomology is under such lasting obligations for the elucida- 
tion of so many points of obscurity.not the least interesting of which 
is the discovery of the males of Cryplocerus. From Mr. Bates s 
notes I copied the following observation: "The three sexes were 
taken in company in a decaying tree, in which their burrows were 
formed "* judging from the number of specimens sent two males 
and about a dozen of each of the other sexes-we may reason- 
ably conclude that their societies are not very numerous. In their 
habits we have been informed by Lund that the species are com- 
paratively solitary, lying in wait and springing upon their prey in 
the manner of a hunting spider, to wh.ch indeed they bear a 
striking resemblance. ' . 

This note applies to the discovery of the sexes of C. elypeutui. 



214 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 

The number of previously described species appears to be 
twenty ; to this I now add fifteen, making the total thirty-five. 
From these I propose to remove the species of the Old World, 
four in number, and form a new genus for their reception ; and a 
second new genus I create for two other species, differing very 
materially from all others in having the abdomen peduncu- 
lated and rounded in the females, the neuration of their wings 
being also quite distinct from Cryptocerus. When a knowledge 
of all the sexes shall have been obtained, it will in all probability 
be necessary to make further subdivisions. Indeed, I retain in the 
genus Cryplocerus a species from Adelaide with some reluctance ; 
but having only one specimen, I leave it there for future investi- 
gation, being unwilling to destroy it by dissecting. In its antennae 
I cannot detect more than ten joints, all other neuters having 
eleven ; the basal joint of the flagellum is frequently hidden in a 
cavity at the apex of the scape, but such does not appear to be 
the case in the species from Adelaide. 

Having the means of describing for the first time the male and 
female of a closely allied genus, the Dace ton of Perty, I have 
given both descriptions and figures of the sexes ; this genus, in 
the neuration of the wings, will be found very nearly to agree 
with the genus Cryptocerus. 

I have also added to my present memoir a description of a new 
and allied genus from New Zealand, very remarkable for having 
only five joints in the antennae of the workers. 

I have much pleasure in recording still further obligations to 
Mr. Bates, who discovered the male and female of the genus 
Daceton ; both sexes are in the collection of the British Museum. 
I am greatly indebted to my friend Mr. Westwood for the per- 
mission to describe four new species from his collection ; nine 
new species are described from specimens in my own cabinet, 
the possession of which in the first instance induced me to under- 
take a monograph of the genus Cryptocerus. 

-Group CRYPTOCERID^E. 
Genus 1. CRYPTOCERUS. 

Formica, pt. Linn. Syst. Nat. i. 965, 16 ; Fabr.pt. Syst. Ent. 395 ; 

Spec. Ins. i. 310; Ent. Syst. ii. 3G9, 54; Oliv. 

Encl. Meth. vi. 500 ; Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 272. 
Cryptocerus, Latr. Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. xiii. 260 ; Gen. 

Crust. Ins. 132; Fabr. Syst. Piez. 418; Klug, 

Entom. Monog. 200; St. Farg. Hym. i. 170; 

Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 424. 



of the Genus Cryptocerus. 215 

Sexes three ; female and worker furnished with a sting, sides 
of the head expanded, partly concealing the eyes, having on each 
side beneath the produced margin a longitudinal channel before 
the eyes ; antennae stout, clavate, reposing in the lateral channel ; 
scape of the antennae grooved beneath for the reception of the 
basal joints of the flagellum ; labrum transverse, its anterior 
margin deeply notched ; labial palpi 3-jointed, each of about 
equal length ; maxillary palpi 5-jointed, the first joint short, sub- 
globose, the second about the length of the two following, the 
apical joint the same length as the third and fourth ; maxillary 
apical lobe somewhat rounded, slightly produced and pointed at 
the apex ; superior wings having one marginal and two sub-mar- 
ginal cells ; and one small discoidal cell, sub-quadrate and narrowed 
towards the submarginal. Abdomen elongate in the females ; 
ovate, or globose in the workers. 

Males elongate, slender; the head not produced at the sides; 
ocelli prominent (smaller in the females and wanting in the 
workers) ; wings ample, neuration as in the females ; legs elongate ; 
abdomen small, attached to the thorax by two basal nodes. 

Obs. Latrielle in his Gen. Crust, et Ins. iv. p. 132, says the 
labial palpi consist of four joints. I have examined both labial and 
maxillary palpi of females and workers of C. atratus, under a 
powerful microscope, and can only detect three labial and five 
maxillary joints in the palpi. Fabricius, Syst. Piez., p. 419, gives 
labial palpi 4-jointed, maxillary palpi 6-jointed. 



1. Cryptocerus atratus. (PL XIX. figs. 1, 2.) 

Formica atratus, Linu. Syst. Nat. i. 965, 16 ; Fab. Syst. Ent. 395, 

24 ; Spec. Ins. i. 493, 33 ; Mantis. Ins. i. 

310, 40; Ent. Syst. ii. 363, 54; Oliv. 

Encycl. Meth. vi. 609 ; Latr. Hist. Nat. 

Fourm. 272, tab. xii. fig. 74 A. 
Formica quadridens, De Geer, Ins. iii. 609, 7, tab.31, fig. 17 20. 

Cryplocerus marginaius, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 419, 2, $. 

atratus, Latr. Hist. Nat. xiii. 260, tab. cii. fig. 1 ; 
Fabr. Syst. Piez. 418, 1 j Klug, Entom. 
Monog. 200, 1 ; St. Farg. Hym. i. 170, 1 ; 
Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 424, tab. 69, fig. 3; 
Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino. (Ser. Sec.) 
Tom. xii. I. 63. 

Hab. Brazil ; Cayenne ; Surinam. 



216 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 



2. Cryptocerus dubttatus, new sp. (PL XX. fig. 1.) 
Male. Length 6 lines. Head and thorax black, rugose-punc- 
tate ; the stemmata placed forwards on the vertex ; antenna; 
ferruginous. Thorax, the collar produced at the anterior angles 
into a short acute tooth ; the metathorax is also produced at the 
posterior angles into a sharp spine ; the wings ferruginous. Legs 
ferruginous, the coxae and trochanters black. Abdomen, the two 
nodes black, the rest ferruginous. 

This insect was in my possession some time before Mr. Bates 
discovered the male of C. clypeatus. I had placed it with " C. 
atratus" as being probably its male, but I had no other evidence 
of its being a male Cryptocerus than the circumstance of its agree- 
ing in the neuration of the wings with that genus ; from its size 'I 
still suspect it to be the male of " atratus," I have seen no second 
example. 

Hab. Brazil. 

3. Cryptocerus jEthiops, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 9.) 
Neuter. Length 3% lines. Black, opaque, lateral margins of the 

head dilated, and slightly raised, within which is an indistinct 
longitudinal ferruginous stripe ; at the posterior angles of the 
head are two acute spines, and in front of each eye, beneath the 
dilated margin, is a short tooth visible from above ; at the vertex 
of the head are also two minute spines. At the anterior angles 
of the thorax is a short spine or tooth, behind which is a stout 
elongate spine, bidentate at the apex ; the posterior angles are 
also armed with acute spines, which curve outwardly ; the 
nodes of the abdomen unarmed ; abdomen globose, deeply emar- 
ginate in front, the emargination receiving the posterior node, 
The head, thorax and nodes of the abdomen have distant large 
shallow punctures ; abdomen very delicately shagreened, polished 
on the disc, and having a few scattered punctures. 

Hab. Brazil. 

In the Collection of the British Museum, and of my own. 

4. Cryptocerus oculatus. 

Cryptocerus oculatus, Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino, ser. 2m. tom.xii. 

I. 65. 
Hab. Brazil. 



of the Genus Cryptocerus. 217 

5. Cryptocerus clypeatus. (PI. XXI. fig. 1, 2, 5 & 6.) 

Cryptocerus clypeatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 420, 3, (worker) ; 
Perty, Delec. ; Klug, Entom. Monog. 207, 6; Guerin, 
Icon. R. Anim. 426, 6. 

Male. Length 3| lines. Head and thorax black, rugose, and 
having on the disc of the thorax a thinly scattered fulvous pubes- 
ence; antennae and legs pale ferruginous; wings sub-hyaline, 
nervures pale testaceous, stigma ferruginous ; a dark cloud com- 
mences just within the first sub-marginal cell, occupies the mar- 
ginal one, and passes along the anterior margin to the apex of the 
wing. Abdomen ferrugineo-testaceous, highly polished, the first 
node black, the second stained at the sides. 

Female. Length 6 lines. Entirely of a reddish-yellow, smooth 
and shining ; the flagellum of the antennae fuscous ; the lateral 
margins of the head raised, at the posterior angles a short acute 
spine, another acute spine immediately behind each posterior 
sternma; the anterior angles of the thorax acute; the lateral 
angles of the metathorax produced into stout obtuse spines, 
disc of the thorax somewhat flattened. Wings sub-hyaline, the 
nervures at the base of the wings pale, darker towards their 
apex ; a dark cloud occupies the marginal cell and passes off 
along the anterior margin of the wing to the apex ; the nervures 
of the wings have a narrow cloud running their entire length. 
Abdomen elongate, flattened above, having at the basal and apical 
angles an ovate yellow macula, surrounded by a fuscous ring. 

Hab. Brazil (Santarem). H. W. Bates, Esq. 

In the British Museum, and other Collections. 

6. Cryptocerus membranaceus. 

Reddish-brown, punctured ; head and thorax spinose, the abdo- 
men having a pale membranaceous margin. 

Cryptocerus membranaceus, Klug, Ent. Monog. -, Guerin, Icon. 

R. Anim. 426. (Worker.) 
Length 3 lines. 
Hab. Brazil. 

7. Cryptocerus quadriguttalus. 
Reddish-brown : abdomen ovate, and having four large yellow 

spots, and between the pairs a transverse black band. 

Cryptocerus 4-guttatus, Gutsr. Icon. R. Anim. 425. (Worker.) 

Length 3| lines. . 

Hab. Columbia ; Bolivia ; Amazons, Brazil. 



218 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 

8. Cryptocerus elongatus. 

Black, elongate ; thorax anteriorly and posteriorly bispinose. 
Cryptocerus elongatus, Klug, Entom. Monog. $ ; Guerin, 

Icon. R. Anira. 426. 
Length 5 lines. 
Hab. Brazil (Para). 

9. Cryptocerus pollens. 

Pallid, depressed ; head and thorax angulate ; petiole very short, 
sub-spinose. 

Cryptocerus pollens, Klug, Ent. Monog.; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 
Length ]J line. 
Hab. Brazil. 

10. Cryplocerus argentatus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 7.) 

Female. Length 5 lines. Shining black : head finely and dis- 
tantly punctured, rounded in front, and convex above ; the stem- 
mata placed in a triangle, wide apart ; the lateral raised margins 
of the head narrow, commencing in front opposite the base of 
the mandibles, and gradually narrowing backwards to the pos- 
terior angles of the head, which are acute ; prothorax acute at 
the anterior lateral angles, the metathorax on each side at the 
posterior angles forming a long spine curving slightly upwards ; 
the first node of the abdomen produced on each side into a sharp 
stout spine curving upwards ; the second node also has anteriorly 
on each side a stout acute spine curving upwards ; the abdomen 
very smooth and shining, and having on each side, nearly 
touching the basal angle, an ovate yellow macula, which is 
sprinkled over with silvery scales or hairs ; the apical segments 
are covered with silvery hairs ; the wings fusco-hyaline, the thorax 
minutely and distantly punctured, the legs are sprinkled with 
short silvery hairs above. 

Hab. Columbia. 

In my own Collection. 

11. Cryptocerus D' Orbignyanus, Westw. MSS., new sp. - 

(PI. XIX. fig. 5.) 

Female. Length 4 lines. Black : head and thorax covered, 
with shallow punctures, the abdomen delicately and very closely 
punctured, the entire insect sprinkled with minute golden hairs ; 
the produced lateral margins of the head rufo-testaceous an- 



of the Genus Cryptocerus. 219 

teriorly, the mandibles and antennae of the same colour. Thorax, 
the anterior and posterior angles acute, forming short spines ; 
wings slightly fuscous, stigma fuscous, nervures pale testaceous ; 
legs ferruginous. The first node of the abdomen produced in 
the middle laterally into a short acute spine, the second node 
has on each side anteriorly a recurved spine. Abdomen elongate, 
narrowing slightly towards the base. 
II ab. South America. 

Of this species I have only seen the single specimen kindly lent 
to me by Mr. Westwood for description. 

12. Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus. (PL XIX. fig. 8.) 

Black, elongate ; the head convex above, rounded in front, the 
abdomen having four yellow maculae. 

Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus, Klug, Ent. Monog. 5; Guerin, 

Icon. R. Anim. 426. 
Length 3 lines. 
Hab. Brazil. In my own Collection. 

13. Cryptocerus depressus, 

Black : the head anteriorly testaceous at the sides, posteriorly 
bispinose ; the petiole spinose. 

Cryptocerus depressus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R. 

Anim. 426. 
Length 2 lines. 
Hab. Rio Janeiro. 

14. Cryptocerus umbraculalus. 

Rufo-testaceous, margins of the head flavescent, thorax having 
a spine at the anterior angles ; abdomen ovate, yellow, and having 
two transverse black stripes connected by a central stripe. 

Cryptocerus umbraculatus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 420, 4 ; Klug, Entom. 

Monog. 210, 8 ; Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 426, 8. 
Length 4| lin. 
Hab. South America. 

15. Cryptocerus femor alls, West. MSS., new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 3.) 

Neuter. Length 2| lines. Black: the head, thorax and legs 
covered with shallow punctures, each containing a minute glitter- 
<ng scale or hair ; the lateral margins of the head expanded before 



220 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 

the eyes, the margin testaceous, the hinder angles acute ; the 
antennae sprinkled with glittering hairs ; the sides of the thorax 
in front testaceous, the anterior portion transverse quadrate, 
behind which the sides are deeply notched, the notch containing 
a curved spine ; the metathorax transverse, its anterior margin 
arched, the lateral and posterior margins curved inwards, the 
posterior angles produced into a sharp spine ; the nodes of the 
abdomen transverse, armed on each side with a sharp spine which 
is bent backwards ; legs four-sided, the section of which is a 
square. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, narrowly margined; 
longitudinally and finely rugulose, most strongly so at the base. 
Hab. Columbia. 

This species is in the Collection of J. O. Westwood, Esq., who 
kindly lent it me for description. 

16. Cryptoccrus cordalus, new sp. (PI. XXI. fig. 3.) 

Worker. Length S lines. Black, finely punctured, thinly 
covered with glittering silvery scales; the head deeply emarginate 
in front, the sides rounded anteriorly, notched on each side over 
the eyes; the head truncate posteriorly, the lateral angles slightly 
obliquely truncate; the head rufo-testaceous on each side ante- 
riorly. The thorax rounded in front, produced laterally into a 
flattened margin, the angles of which are acute anteriorly, the 
sides curved and notched posteriorly, forming a small sharp tooth 
on each side, between which is a transverse suture ; the posterior 
portion of the thorax is bidentate on each side, the anterior tooth 
being the largest, and curving slightly backwards ; the basal 
margin of this portion of the thorax notched on each side, forming 
a blunt tooth in the centre. The two nodes of the abdomen are 
transverse, the anterior one being the widest; each is produced 
laterally into teeth or spines, which are bent backwards ; the 
abdomen is heart-shaped, slightly margined at the base, the basal 
margins laterally testaceous. 

Hab. Santarem, Brazil. 

Mr. Bates, in a note on this species, observes, "Swarms of this 
small species, all individuals of the same size, are seen on branches 
and flowers of Byrsominse and other trees on dry sandy campos." 

The single specimen sent is unique in the Collection of the 
British Museum. 

17. Cryptocerus pusillus. (PI. XX. fig. 8.) 
Black: head dilated hefore the eyes on each side, the sides 
anteriorly testaceous. 



of the Genus Cryptocerus. 221 

Cryptocerus pusillus, Klug, Ent. Monog. ; Guerin, Icon. R. 

Anim. 426. 
Length 2J lines. 
Hab. Brazil ; Demerara. 

In the Collection of the British Museum, and of J. O. West- 
wood, Esq. 

18. Cryplocerus minutus. 

Black : head depressed, marginate, the margin pale testaceous, 
thorax having anteriorly on each side a bent spine ; abdomen 
margined at the base, the margin pale testaceous. 

_ Length 2 lines. 

.Hab. S. America. 

Cryptocerus minutus, Fabr. Syst. Piez. 425, 5 ; Klug, Entom. 
Monog. 202, 2 ; Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 486, 2. 

1 9. Cryptocerus Pinelii. 

Dark brown : head and thorax without spines, petiole and ab- 
domen pale yellow ; the entire insect punctate. 

Cryptocerus Pinelii, Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 425. 

Length Z\ lines. 

Hab. Moro-Gueimado, Brazil. 

20. Cryptocerus complanatus. 

Opaque black ; posterior angles of the head without spines ; 
thorax wide in front, narrowing towards the abdomen ; nodes of 
the abdomen transverse ; spined at the sides ; abdomen ovate. 

Cryptocerus complanatus, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 424 (Neuter). 

Length 3 lines. 
Hab. Cayenne. 

21. Cryptocerus Pavonil. 

Cryptocerus Pavonii, Latr. Gen. Crust. Ins. 132. 
Hab. South America. 

22. Cryptocerus unimaculatus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 9.) 

Neuter. Length 3 lines. Head and thorax black ; disc of the 
head rugose, most deeply so on the vertex ; the raised lateral 
margins ferruginous, terminating opposite the eyes ; scape of the 
antennae and the flagellum beneath .ferruginous ; the thorax 
rugose, the anterior angles produced into a stout blunt spine ; the 



222 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 

posterior angles have also a longer stout acute spine, the legs black ; 
the head and thorax are both sprinkled with short bright golden 
hairs ; each node of the abdomen has on each side an acute spine. 
Abdomen ovate, emarginate at the base ; an oblong black stripe 
runs from the apex to the middle of the abdomen; beneath black. 
Hab. Brazil. 

This appears to be a rare species ; I have only seen the single 
specimen in my own Collection. 

23. Cryptocerus discocephalus, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 2.) 

Neuter. Length 2J lines. Entirely ferruginous, the entire 
margin of the head curving upwards, forming the exact model of 
a dish or bowl, which has a few large scattered punctures within ; 
the posterior angles of the head produced laterally, and bent 
slightly upwards ; the thorax without spines, somewhat oblong- 
quadrate, but narrower posteriorly ; nodes of the abdomen trans- 
verse, acute at their outer angles ; abdomen elongate-ovate, deeply 
emarginate at the base ; legs very short and stout. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Of this remarkable species I have only seen two specimens, one 
in the Collection at the British Museum, and one in my own. 

24. Cryptocerus causticus. 

Formica caustica, Pohl and Kollar, Braz. Insect. 17. Tab. 

fig. 12. 
Cryptocerus caustica, Guer. Icon. R. Anim. 426. 

25. Cryptocerus elegans, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 3.) 

*Neuter. Length 2 lines. Head, antennae and legs rufo-tes- 
taceous ; margins of the head broadly expanded at the sides, nar- 
rowly so behind, and of a pale testaceous hue; eyes black; 
mandibles rufo-testaceous. Thorax elongate, rounded in front, 
its lateral angles produced into spines curving backwards ; the 
metathorax has three teeth on each side ; the shoulders and 
teeth at the sides of the thorax pale testaceous ; the posterior 
femora testaceous, and having a minute tooth above; the first 
node of the abdomen rounded in front, curving outwardly at the 
sides to half its length, then abruptly curving inwards on each 

Mr. H. W. Bates, in a note on this species, observes : " This pretty little 
species was found swimming nimbly over the broad leaves of Heliconitc in a 
moist forest. I have not yet detected its male or female, but suppose its nest to 
be made in the hollow branches of trees like the other species." 



of the Genus Cryptocerus. 223 

side, forming a narrow footstalk to the broad portion ; the second 
is somewhat square, having on each side anteriorly a broad bent 
flattened spine. Abdomen heart-shaped, having on each side, at 
the base, a large ovate pale testaceous macula, and a little beyond 
the middle on each side a pale transverse stripe : the entire insect 
is covered with shallow punctures, and sprinkled with very short 
glittering hairs or scales. 

Hab. Columbia ; Brazil (Santarem). H. W. Bates, Esq. 

In the Collections of the British Museum, and of J. O. West- 
wood, Esq. 

26. Cryptocerus hcemarrholdalis. 

Opaque-black : the head without spines, large and nearly square, 
the lateral margins of the head ferruginous ; abdomen ovate, the 
sides marginate, at the apex a large red spot, divided in the middlle 
by a longitudinal black line. 

Formica htemorrhoidalis, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 276. 
Cryptocerus hcemorrhoidalis, St. Farg. Hym. I. 172, 3. 
Length 2 lines. 
Hab. St. Domingo. 

27. Cryptocerus Araneolus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 4.) 

Neuter. I lines. Dull reddish brown : the lateral margins of 
the head raised and expanded before the eyes ; at the eyes the 
margins are notched, the raised margins ferruginous, the extreme 
apex of the antennae pale testaceous. Thorax oblong, gradually 
narrowing towards the abdomen, divided in the middle by a trans- 
verse suture, the lateral margins crenulated. Legs short and 
stout ; the nodes of the abdomen transverse, and furnished on each 
side with an acute spine. Abdomen ovate, marginate, and emar- 
ginate at the base ; the whole insect covered with shallow punc- 
tures, each of which contains a bright golden hair. 

Hab. St. Vincent's. 

In the Collection of J. O. Westwood, Esq. and in my own. 

28. Cryplocerus rimosus. 

Cryptocerus rimosus, Spin. Mem. Acad. Torino, Tom. xii. I. 65. 
Hab. Brazil. 

29. Cryptocerus pubescens, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 4.) 

Female. Length 2 lines. Brown-ferruginous : the head late- 
rally in front has a slightly raised margin. Thorax quadrate, 
the anterior margin waved, the sides curving outwardly, the 



224 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 

posterior margin curving inwards and waved, notched in the 
middle, the four angles acute. A little before the posterior 
angles the sides produced into an angular tooth. The meta- 
thorax has on each side an acute spine, which as well as the 
first node of the abdomen is hidden by the projection of the 
disc ; the second node half-circular or half-moon shaped. Ab- 
domen nearly rotundate, a dark stain runs down the centre, acute 
at the base and gradually widening to the margin of the first 
segment ; the entire insect is covered with erect pale hairs. 

Hab. Adelaide, N. S. Wales. 

In my own Collection. 

Genus 2. MERANOPLUS. 

Sexes three, male, female and worker, or neuter. Female, Sides 
of the head not expanded ; antennae inserted before and above the 
eyes on each side at the base of the clypeus, the basal joint or 
scape nearly as long as the flagellum ; in repose, received into a 
lateral channel or groove above the eyes in the sides of the head, 
passing beyond them and nearly reaching the vertex. Wings, the 
superior pair having one marginal and one complete sub-marginal 
cell, each being of about equal length ; the discoidal cell sub- 
quadrate. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, attached to the 
thorax by two elongate nodes. 

1. Meranoplus bicolor. (PI. XX. fig. 6.) 

Head and thorax ferruginous ; abdomen black ; head without 
spines ; metathorax posteriorly armed with a long acute spine on 
each side. 

Cryptocerus bicolor, Guerin, Icon. R. Anim. 425. 

Length If lines. 

Hab. Pondicherry. 

2. Meranoplus petiolalus, new sp. (PI. XX. fig. 7.) 
Female. Length 3| lines. Head bright ferruginous ; antennas 
dark rufo-testaceous ; the thorax of the same colour, longitudi- 
nally rugose, the lateral margins of the thorax parallel to the base 
of the wings, from whence the sides are narrowed considerably to 
the metathorax, which on each side has a short tooth ; wings pale, 
nervures pale ferruginous ; legs ferruginous ; the nodes of the 
abdomen sub-quadrate ; abdomen ovate, rufo-testaceous, and irre- 
gularly stained with black ; beneath black, and having a large 
rufous patch in the middle, which has a black stain in the centre ; 
the entire insect has a thinly scattered erect pale pubescence. 
Hab. Brazil. 



of the Genus Cryptocervs. 225 

A rare species apparently. I have only seen the single speci- 
men in my own Collection. 

Genus CATAULACUS, new gen. 

Sexes three, male, female and neuter, or worker. Female. 
The sides of the head not expanded, the eyes not concealed. An- 
tennae inserted before the eyes ; in repose, received into an oblique 
groove or channel in the cheek ; scape of the antennae grooved 
beneath for the reception of the basal portion of the flagellurn. 
Wings having one marginal and one complete sub-marginal cell, 
the discoidal cells obsolete. Abdomen elongate in the female, 
ovate in the workers or neuters. 

Male not known. 

1. Calaulacus Taprobarue, Westw. MSS,, new sp. (PL XX. 
fig. 10.) 

Neuter. length 2 lines. Black : the head and thorax roughly 
longitudinally rugose, the vertex behind, and a small central por- 
tion of the thorax, anteriorly transversely rugose ; the antennae 
rufo-testaceous, the scape and extreme apex pale ; sides of the 
head and thorax crenulated, the posterior angles of the latter 
armed with a stout spine ; the tibiae and tarsi rufo-testaceous. 
The nodes of the abdomen coarsely sculptured ; abdomen ovate, 
finely sha^reened, and longitudinally and delicately rugose at the 
base and sides, the rugosity consisting of a series of raised striae 
which do not reach the middle of the abdomen excepting at the 



Hab. Ceylon. 

This species is unique in the Collection of the Entomological 
Society, to which it was presented by Mr. G. H. K. Thwaites, 
who captured it in Ceylon. 

2 Cataulacus Guineensis, Westw. MSS., new sp. (PI. XX. 
fig- 5.) 

AWer. Length 2| lines. Black : head and thorax longitudi- 
nally rugose-striate, most deep and coarse on the thorax; sides of 
the head crenulate, the scape ferruginous, apical joint of the 
flagellutn testaceous, the palpi testaceous. Thorax, the anterior 
portion transverse and inclining downwards towards the head, the 
sides crenulate, the posterior angles acute ; behind the transverse 
portion the thorax becomes much narrower towards the meta- 
thorax, from which it is separated by a transverse deep suture; 

VOL. II. N.S. PART VII. JAN. 1854. 



226 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph 

posterior angles of the tnetathorax produced into an elongate stout 
acute spine ; the tibiae and tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen ovate, 
finely granulate, the nodes deeply and coarsely sculptured ; the 
entire insect is sprinkled with erect pubescence. 

Hab. Tropical Western Africa. 

Unique in the Collection of J. O. VVestwood, Esq., who kindly 
lent it to me for description. 

3. Cataulacus parallelus, new sp. (PI. XIX. fig. 6.) 

Female. Length 3J lines. Black : the head longitudinally 
rugose-striate, the vertex emarginate, the emargination trans- 
versely rugose-striate ; the scape of the antennas and extreme 
apex of the flagellum ferruginous. Thorax longitudinally rugose- 
striate; the metathorax on each side produced into a stout sharp 
bent spine, beneath which it is transversely sulcate ; wings tinged 
with yellow, their nervures pale testaceous ; the tibiae and tarsi 
ferruginous. The first node of the abdomen coarsely sculptured 
transversely, the second longitudinally so. Abdomen oblong- 
quadrate, finely aciculate at the base, beyond which it is delicately 
shagreened, and has towards the apex a few short scattered pale 
seta;. 

Hab. Cape of Good Hope. 

Apparently a rare species ; I have only seen the specimen in my 
own Collection. 

4. Cataulacus granulatus. 

Formica granulata, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 275, tab. 1 2, fig. 75. 
Cry ptocerus granulatus, St. Farg. Hymenop. I. 171, 2. 

Opaque-black, granulated, the posterior angles of the head 
armed with a spine, sides of the head not produced, the eyes 
exposed. 

Length If lines. - 

Hab. India. 

Genus 3. DACETON. 

Formica, pt. Latr. Hist. Nat. des Fourm. 
Daceton, Perty, Delect. An. Art. 

Sp. 1. Daceton armigerum. (PI. XXI. figs. 1, 2.) 

Formica armigera, Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourm. 244, tab. ix. fig. 58 

(neuter). 

Altai armigera, Guer; Icon. R. Anim. 221, tab. 69, fig. 2. 
Daceton armigerum, Perty, Delect. An. Art. Bras. tab. 

Female. Pale rufo-testaceous, head heart-shaped, ocelli placed 
in a triangle on the vertex ; thorax not quite so wide as the head, 



of the Genus Cryptocerus. 227 

the anterior angles produced into short acute spines, the posterior 
angles armed with short stout obtuse spines ; anterior wings having 
one elongate marginal cell nearly reaching the apex of the wing, 
and of nearly equal width throughout, truncate at the apex, one 
marginal cell complete, and one discoidal cell ; nodes of the ahdo- 
men without spines ; abdomen ovate, pointed at the apex. 

Male. Length 5 lines. Head and thorax black ; on the sides 
of the head and face a little scattered hoary pubescence, the 
vertex roughly sculptured longitudinally ; the antennae and mouth 
rufo-testaceous, the former as long as the entire insect. Thorax 
above having a few long scattered griseous hairs ; the mesothorax 
has in front a narrow abbreviated smooth oblong space, a similar 
smooth line is also observable parallel with the tegulae ; the post- 
scutellum is pale testaceoua, wings sub-hyaline, the nervures thick 
and of a pale testaceous colour, the marginal cell is occupied by 
a fuscous cloud. Legs pale rufo-testaceous ; the nodes of the 
abdomen fuscous as well as the sides of the following segment, 
the rest of the abdomen ferruginous. 

Hab. Brazil (Santarem). Mr. H. W. Bates. 

The male and female in the British Museum, the latter also in 
my own Collection. 

The male and female were captured by Mr. Bates, who says : 
" This species I always find wandering about the trunks of large 
trees, not in numerous bands, following in regular order, but 
only a few scattered individuals, apparently wandering each on 
his own account in pursuit of prey. When observed, they are 
seen to carry their mandibles wide open at right angles to the 
axis of their bodies ; and when a stalk of grass or any other 
article is presented at their heads, they close their jaws with a 
sudden snap. I do not know where or how they construct their 
nests. I have never seen it occupied in any regular industry, or 
associated in great numbers like (Ecodoma cephalotes, to which it 
appears to be allied." 

Genus 4. ORECTOGNATHUS, new gen. 

Head heart-shaped ; eyes prominent, placed forwards on the 
sides of the head ; mandibles elongate, projecting forwards in a 
line with the body ; antennae elongate, inserted near the base of 
the mandibles, 5-jointed in the worker. Thorax narrow, a little 
longer than the head ; abdomen attached to the thorax by two 
narrow elongate ovate nodes. 



228 Mr. F. Smith's Monograph of Cryptocerus. 

Sp. 1. Orectognathus antennatus. (PL XXI. fig. 9.) 

Neuter. Pale rufo-testaceous, the mandibles armed at their 
extremity with two long spines or teeth, the upper one simple, the 
lower one forked at the apex ; the anterior angles of the thorax 
have a short acute spine, a second short one is situated about the 
middle at the sides, and the metathorax is armed with two longer 
slender acute spines ; legs elongate, very pale testaceous. Abdo- 
men nearly rotundate, slightly flattened, the first node elongate- 
clavate, the second globose. 

Hab. New Zealand. 

In the Collection of the British Museum. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1. Cryptocmts atralus $ ; 1 o, labium of do.; 1 b, maxilla of do.; 1 c, labrum 
of do.; 1 d, mandible of do.; \e, labium of do. (neuter); 
1 /, maxilla of do. (neuter). 

2. atratus (neuter). 

3. elegans ; 3 a, antenna of do. 

4. Araneotus. 

5. D' ' Orbignyanus. 

6. Cataulacus parallelits ; 60, front view of the head of do. 

7. Cryptaeerui argentalus ; 7 a, antenna of do. 

8. yuadrimaculatus, 

9. tinimaciilalvt. 

PLATE XX. 

Fig. 1. Cryptocerus duldtatus. 
2, discocephalus. 

S. femoralis. 

4. pubescent; 4 a, antenna of do. 

5. Cataulacus Guineetisis ; 5a, underside of the head, showing the grooves 

for the reception of the antennae. 

6. Meranoptus Hcolor ; 60, antenna of do. 

7. petiolatus; 7a, antenna of do. 

8. Cryptocerns jiusillus ; 80, antenna of do. 

9. JEthiops. 
10. Cataulacus Taprobanis. 

PLATE XXI. 

Fig. 1 . Cryptocerus clypeatut, g . 

2. do. do.' <J. 

3. cordatus. 

4. membranaceus. 

5. Head of C. clypealus (neuter). 

6. Thorax of do. 

7. Daceton armigernm, . 

8. do. do. 5. 

9. Orectognalhus antennatus (neuter); 9a, mandible of do.; 94, antenna 

of do. ; 9c, metathorax of do. 



Trans. But: Sou. Vol. 2. IT. 5. EL.HZ. 




Irms.JEnt. ^nr. Vol 2. IT.